Day 1 :
Crop Rersearch Institute, Czech Republic
Time : 9:00 -9:30
Polák Jaroslav, Professor, Plant virologist, Diploma in engineering. U. Agriculture, Prague, Czech Republic, 1964, PhD (CSc) Mendel´s U Agriculture, Brno 1974, DSc. Mendel´s U. Agric., Brno 1992. Asst. Prof. Czech U. Agrl., Prague, 1999. From rsch. Asst. to Director of phytomedicine division, Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague. 30 years Head of the Department of Virology, Res. Inst. Crop Prod. Adviser of International Foundation for Science, Stockholm. Co-author: European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Contbr. ca 250 articles to profl. journals. Fellow of International Society for Horticultural Sciences, European Foundation for Plant Pathology. Recognized specialist for Plum pox virus problems. Invited speaker to U.S. and Canadian Universities. Biography several times in Who is Who in Science and Engineering, in Who is Who in the World, Hübners Who is Who, Who is…? (v České republic) 2012. Oxford Encyclopedia, 2016. Founder of Czech Phytopathological Society. Organizer of International Scientific Conferences. Office: Research Institute of Crop Production, Drnovská 507, 16106 Prague, Czech Republic.
Plum pox virus (PPV) is transmissible by grafting, budding, and by aphids in a nonpersistent way. In case, that will be combined varieties with rootstocks which cannot be infected with PPV through aphid inoculation, trees and orchards will remain PPV free for their entire lifetime. Genetically modified (GM) plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. ´HoneySweet´ (clone C5) was proved as the first plum variety for which it is not possible to inoculate PPV through by aphid inoculation. We have proved, that rootstock myrobalan PK which is suitable for plum and apricot varieties also cannot be infected with PPV through aphid inoculation. The GM plum variety ´HoneySweet´ grafted on the rootstock myrobalan PK will completely resist aphid-transmitted PPV infection. The resistance to PPV through aphid inoculation, conditioned by one dominant gene locus, can be used to develop new PPV resistant varieties with the same level of resistance to aphid-transmitted PPV. Cross-hybridization between PPV resistant ´HoneySweet´ plum, and ´Pozegaca´, ´Domácí velkoplodá´ or ´Hauszwetske´ plums, a popular variety with high-quality fruits, but very susceptible to PPV, have been carried out. We are testing plum ´Anna Späth´, ´Gabrovská´, ´Althane renclode´, and apricot ´Harko´ ´Hargrand´, ´Krajova´ varieties resistant to PPV, grafted on rootstock myrobalan PK, for aphid inoculation. This research can result in another variety which cannot be infected with PPV through aphid inoculation. Ultimately, that will provide a long-term stable production for growers, and a dependable supply of healthful fruits for consumers.
University Of Maryland ,USA
Time : 9:30-10:00
Steven Hutcheson received his PhD from the UC Berkeley in 1982 and did his postdoctoral research with Dr T Kosuge at UC Davis on IAA production by a P. syringae strain. He joined the University of Maryland College Park in 1984 where he is now Professor of Microbiology in the Dept. of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics. In addition to his many professional activities in plant pathology, he has been an invited speaker at numerous international conferences on molecular plant-microbe interactions. His research publications in this field and related topics have garnered in excess of 4700.
The role of technology in deciphering the mechanisms of plant innate immunity and how that led to new adventures. Steven W Hutcheson, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. This all began with two simple questions: at the molecular level, what enables a pathogen to parasitize a susceptible plant host and what restricts the host range of that pathogen to that susceptible host? Working with cultured plant cell suspensions and several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, we determined there were no simple answers to these questions. Through a genetic approach, colleagues and I were able to clone and sequence a gene cluster that ultimately was determined to be a Type III protein secretion system (TTSS). This discovery modified our original hypothesis to injected protein elicitors for which we showed to be AVR proteins and developed several approaches to finding the genes for these in strains of P. syringae. This work provided explanations for how P. syringae strains evolved and the commonalities in how many plant and mammalian pathogens cause disease. We were also able to define the components of the regulatory system controlling the expression of the TTSS and explain many of the phenomena associated with the development and expression of the TTSS. These successes opened up new directions for the laboratory examining the mechanisms for how an obscure bacterium degraded nearly all biopolymers through unique mechanisms and a commercial adventure.
Texas A&M University, USA
Time : 10:00-10:30
Russell W Jessup is currently an Associate Professor of Perennial Grass Breeding in the Department of Soil & Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University. He completed his PhD in 2005, followed by postdoctoral research with the USDA-ARS (2005-07) and a biofuel feedstock industry breeder position (2007-09). His research focuses on developing improved renewable bioproducts/biorefineries, forages, turfgrass, and ornamentals utilizing classical, cytogenetic, and molecular strategies.
Synthetic fertilizers pose environmental concerns—particularly in urban landscapes—and currently available organic fertilizers have several deficiencies (low nutrient content, low water solubility, potential pathogen, and weed seed contaminants). The development of torrefaction-based fertilizers (TBFs) from perennial, high-biomass feedstocks provides immense opportunity to offset chemical fertilizers, prevent disease and weed risk, and contribute soil carbon. TBFs recently developed in the Perennial Grass Breeding & Genetics Program have demonstrated significant fertility (yield) response in both grain (maize) and biomass (Napiergrass) crops. These novel TBFs further have demonstrated: 6-8 dry tons per acre TBF yield, free of pathogens and weed-seed, 450-600% water-holding capacity, neutral pH (6.5–7.3), significant soil carbon contribution, and nutrient value (3-4% N, 1-2% P, 1-3% K). Opportunities for incorporation of TBFs into organic fertilizers, composts, soilless media, and amendments will be presented.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, USA
Keynote: Title: Biological Soil Amendments of Animal Origin (BSAAO) in Fresh Fruits and Vegetable Production: A Regulatory Perspective
Time : 11:00-11:30
Dr. David Ingram joined FDA/CFSAN as a Consumer Safety Officer in 2013. Previous experience includes over 14 years of service as a Food Safety Microbiologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) in Beltsville, Maryland. Dr. Ingram continues to promote public health with his transition to the FDA, where he develops feasible, science-based regulations designed to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness. He received his B.S. in Biology from Dickinson College, and both M.S. (Microbiology) and Ph.D. (Food Science) degrees from the University of Maryland at College Park.
When the FDA first proposed the Produce Safety rule mandated by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) in 2013, the proposed criteria included a nine-month interval between the application of raw manure (and other untreated BSAAOs) and the crop harvest when certain application methods are used. Many growers and other stakeholders in the produce industry objected, focusing on the limitations of the data on practices across the U.S. and internationally. Organic growers specifically expressed concern about the differences between the proposed application interval and the USDA National Organic Program standards for raw manure application intervals. In response, the FDA decided to reserve a decision on the minimum application interval and to conduct additional research and a risk assessment, which can evaluate the impact of interventions that include the use of application intervals. This change was included in the September 2014 supplemental notice for the produce rule and carried forward into the final version, which was issued in November 2015. In the meantime, we have placed restrictions on how raw manure is applied. The Produce Safety rule requires that covered farms not apply raw manure in a manner that contacts produce covered by the rule during application. And these farms are required to minimize the potential for contact after application. The future of FDA’s regulatory position on the current ‘reserved’ days-to-harvest restrictions on the use of untreated BSAAO has not yet been determined. Current findings of FDA’s risk assessment activities, as well as possible outcome will be discussed.